New Canine Influenza Cases in OR and WA
On July 24, Golden Bond Rescue of Oregon transported eight Golden Retrievers from China via Taipei, Taiwan to Seattle, WA. Upon their arrival, the dogs stayed the night in Tacoma, WA where one of the dogs became ill. The ill dog exhibits respiratory disease and malaise and was seen at a local veterinary center where the dog was tested for respiratory pathogens; final results indicated Bordetella and mycoplasma positive and H3N8 negative. There was no mention of testing for H3N2 .
On July 25, five of the eight dogs traveled to Portland, Oregon where they were seen at a local hospital. Although some of them had respiratory disease none were tested for CIV. Four of the five dogs were seen again at various veterinary hospitals, and three were tested for respiratory diseases including CIV. Two of the dogs have tested positive for CIV (IDEXX and Oregon State University).
- One of the samples was confirmed as H3N2 at IDEXX
- The second sample tested at OSU, VDL is positive for CIV (pending subtyping) as well as parainfluenza and mycoplasma.
- One additional sample is pending for results.
Of the three dogs that were adopted in WA State, two were seen a second time at various veterinary clinics with respiratory disease, and with a history of originating from China and none were tested for H3N2.
Infection control and vaccination– lines of defense against CIV
Viral disease is best prevented through vaccination. Assessment for vaccinating a canine patient for CIV should be like that for Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccination. There is a bivalent (H3N8 and H3N2) canine influenza vaccination. CIV vaccination requires two doses, 2-4 weeks apart. Speak to the manufacturer of the vaccine you carry regarding the need for annual boosters.
To minimize the risk of introduction and spread of canine influenza and other diseases, maintain proper cleaning and disinfection, ask about exposure to other dogs such as in daycare, grooming, boarding, dog parks and other public spaces, and follow protocols for prompt isolation of ill animals.
- Thorough cleaning and disinfection will eliminate the risk of spreading virus by fomites like supplies/equipment or by environmental contamination. Most commonly used disinfectants will inactivate the virus. Immediately clean contaminated equipment and surfaces after exposure to a dog with respiratory disease.
- Adequate PPE is necessary to prevent spread of virus on staff hands and clothing. Wear disposable gloves when handling potentially infected dogs or cleaning contaminated cages. Change clothes between work and home, as dog handlers have carried virus home on clothing and infected their own dogs. Everyone should wash their hands with soap and water before and after handling each dog; after coming into contact with a dog’s saliva, urine, feces, or blood; after cleaning cages; and upon arriving at and before leaving the facility.
- Isolation protocols should be rigorously applied for dogs showing signs of respiratory diseases. Dogs with respiratory disease should not spend time in the waiting room, and the exam room should be cleaned and disinfected right after use. If a dog must be hospitalized for CIV infection, use an isolation space that is separate from other animals (by a full wall and door) and has its own ventilation system. Other isolation protocols include:
- Only limited, designated staff or volunteers are permitted to enter isolation areas
- Use separate coveralls or other full clothing coverage, gloves, boots or shoe covers
- Use separate cleaning, feeding and treatment supplies
- Clean and feed animals in isolation last
Testing for CIV
It is difficult to determine solely by clinical signs which respiratory pathogen is present in the dog; a PCR respiratory panel is the best option. It is common to find multiple viruses in these environments and a panel will assist in finding those agents. As with all respiratory viruses, it is important to take samples for agent detection within the first few days of clinical sign onset. Dogs showing clinical signs for >7 days should be tested for CIV by an antibody test as the virus itself is often undetectable in later stages of illness, as is true for most respiratory viral infections. Veterinarians should call their reference laboratory and discuss which test is most appropriate and for sample submission details and cost. Phoenix Laboratory sends PCR and serology testing directly to Cornell University.
In King County, Public Health collects voluntary case reports of CIV. Please visit: kingcounty.gov/zoonotic
For more information on CIV, please visit the WSVMA website (https://wsvma.org/2018/05/18/canine-influenza-h3n2-should-you-be-thinking-about-it/).
Posted August 8, 2019